Limited Liability Companies: Frequently Asked Questions

WHO SHOULD FORM AN LLC?

You should consider forming an LLC (limited liability company) if you are concerned about personal exposure to lawsuits arising from your business. For example, if you decide to open a store-front business that deals directly with the public, you may worry that your commercial liability insurance won’t fully protect your personal assets from potential slip-and-fall lawsuits or claims by your suppliers for unpaid bills. Running your business as an LLC may help you sleep better because it instantly gives you personal protection against these and other potential claims against your business.

Not all businesses can operate as LLCs, however. Businesses in the banking, trust, and insurance industry, for example, are typically prohibited from forming LLCs.

SHOULD I CHOOSE AN LLC OR AN S-CORPORATION?

While the S-corporation’s special tax status eliminates double taxation, it lacks the flexibility of an LLC in allocating income to the owners.

An LLC may offer several classes of membership interests while an S-corporation may only have one class of stock.

Any number of individuals or entities may own interests in an LLC. However, ownership interest in an S-corporation is limited to no more than 100 shareholders. Also, S-corporations cannot be owned by C-corporations, other S-corporations, many trusts, LLCs, partnerships, or nonresident aliens. Also, LLCs are allowed to have subsidiaries without restriction.

WHAT IS AN LLC OPERATING AGREEMENT?

An LLC operating agreement allows you to structure your financial and working relationships with your co-owners in a way that suits your business. In your operating agreement, you and your co-owners establish each owner’s percentage of ownership in the LLC, his or her share of profits (or losses), his or her rights and responsibilities, and what will happen to the business if one of you leaves.

DO I NEED TO HAVE AN OPERATING AGREEMENT?

Although most states’ LLC laws don’t require a written operating agreement, you shouldn’t consider starting business without one. Here’s why an operating agreement is necessary:

MUST I HOLD LLC MEETINGS?

Although a corporation’s failure to hold shareholder or director meetings may subject the corporation to alter ego liability, this is not the case for LLCs in many states. In California for example, an LLC’s failure to hold meetings of members or managers is not usually considered grounds for imposing the alter ego doctrine where the LLC’s Articles of Organization or Operating Agreement do not expressly require such meetings.

EXCEPTIONS TO LIMITED LIABILITY

While LLC owners enjoy limited personal liability for many of their business transactions, it is important to realize that this protection is not absolute. This drawback is not unique to LLCs, however — the same exceptions apply to corporations. An LLC owner can be held personally liable if he or she:

This last exception is the most important. In some circumstances, a court might say that the LLC doesn’t really exist and find that its owners are really doing business as individuals, who are personally liable for their acts. To keep this from happening, make sure you and your co-owners:

A good liability insurance policy can shield your personal assets when limited liability protection does not. For instance, if you are a massage therapist and you accidentally injure a client’s back; your liability insurance policy should cover you. Insurance can also protect your personal assets in the event that your limited liability status is ignored by a court.

In addition to protecting your personal assets in such situations, insurance can protect your corporate assets from lawsuits and claims. Be aware, however, that commercial insurance usually does not protect personal or corporate assets from unpaid business debts, whether or not they’re personally guaranteed.